The Internet of Things is based on the computer Internet, using RFID, wireless data communication and other technologies to construct an "Internet of Things. RFID technology plays a decisive role in the realization of the Internet of Things. RFID technology is widely used in industry, commerce, intelligent transportation systems and other fields.
1 Overview of the Internet of Things
In 2009, the Chinese government proposed a "perceive China" plan to vigorously support the development of the Internet of Things industry and raise the Internet of Things to the second of the country's five strategic emerging industries; on August 7, 2009, Wen Jiabao inspected the "Networking" technology research and development center pointed out that it is necessary to break through the core technology as soon as possible and combine the sensing technology with TD-SCDMA technology. In the "two sessions" of the country in 2010, Premier Wen's "Government T Report" proposed "accelerating the R & D and application of the Internet of Things". As a result, the Internet of Things is gradually entering people's sight.
The Internet of Things is based on the computer Internet, using RFID, wireless data communication and other technologies to construct an "Internet of Things", its essence is to use radio frequency identification technology to realize the automatic identification of goods (commodities) through computer tile networking The interconnection and sharing of information is one of the core technologies in the Internet of Things.
2 Introduction to RFID technology
RFID is short for radio frequency identification technology, which is a kind of non-contact automatic identification technology. It uses radio frequency signals to automatically identify Japanese target objects and obtain relevant data. It can work in various harsh environments without manual intervention. RFID technology plays a decisive role in the realization of the Internet of Things. From the perspective of the Internet of Things system, it can be divided into three layers: perception layer, transmission layer and intelligent application layer. The perception layer is at the forefront of information collection in the Internet of Things system and plays a fundamental role in the realization of the Internet of Things; the most important technology in the perception layer is RFID technology.
The simplest RFID system consists of three parts: electronic tag, reader and antenna. After the electronic tag enters the magnetic field, it receives the radio frequency signal sent by the reader, and uses the energy obtained by the induced current to send out the product information stored in the chip, or actively sends the frequency signal. The information system performs relevant data processing. RFID has the advantages of long non-contact working distance, suitable for harsh environments, and recognizable moving targets.
2.1 Electronic label
Electronic tags, also known as radio frequency cards, can turn "things" into "intelligent objects". Its main application is to label moving and non-moving items to achieve various tracking and management. The electronic tag is the data carrier of the radio frequency identification system. The electronic tag is composed of a tag antenna and a dedicated chip for the tag. There is a certain format of electronic data in the electronic tag memory, which is often used as identification information of the item to be identified. In application, the electronic tag is attached to the item to be identified as an electronic mark of the item to be identified. Electronic tags can be divided into low-frequency electronic tags, high-frequency electronic tags, ultra-high-frequency electronic tags and microwave electronic tags according to different frequencies; according to different power supply methods, they can be divided into active tags, passive tags and semi-passive tags. The RFID reader performs wireless communication with the RFID electric tag through the antenna, and can read or write the tag identification code and memory data. The tag chip is equivalent to a single-chip system with wireless transceiver function plus storage function. In actual use, the standard hoop can be made into various sizes and shapes, which requires special processes to seal it, so that the label and data are not damaged, which is convenient for the rewriting and reuse of the label.
RFID reader, also known as reading device, can read and identify the sub-data stored in the tag, so as to achieve the purpose of automatically identifying objects. The communication between the reader and the electronic tag is realized in a contactless manner, using the spatial coupling of alternating magnetic or electromagnetic fields and the modulation and demodulation technology of radio frequency signals. The reader provides a way of data transmission with the electronic tag, and also uses a specific algorithm to control the status of the signal, parity and correct information. Depending on the structure and technology used, the reader can be a reading or reading / writing device, and is an information control and processing center for RFID systems. Depending on the application, the reader can be hand-held or indefinite. Current readers are costly, and many people can only work at a single frequency. With the development of technology, the reader is developing in the direction of miniaturization, portable, embedded, and modularization, the cost will be more low, and it supports multiple frequency points, and can automatically recognize the label information of different frequencies.
2 .3 Antenna
The function of the antenna is to transmit radio frequency signals between the tag and the reader. In order for the antenna to work properly, its size must be consistent with the wavelength of the propagating wave. The antenna can be a passive device or an active device. In practical applications, the shape and relative position of the antenna will also affect data transmission and reception, requiring professionals to design and install the system's antenna.
3 Application of radio frequency identification technology in the Internet of Things
The application of RFID technology in foreign countries started early and the technology is relatively mature, and the status of RFID technology application in China is still in its infancy, but in recent years China has accelerated the pace of development of RFID technology, and the application of RFID is also increasing. Radio frequency identification technology is widely used in industrial, commercial, intelligent transportation systems and other fields such as: highway automatic toll collection system; parking lot management system: production, storage, distribution, sales and other links of goods; electric wallet; animal tracking and Management, etc.
The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games used RFID technology for ticket anti-counterfeiting for the first time, which not only prevented the appearance of fake tickets, but also had the advantages of convenient verification, strong confidentiality, low network requirements, anti-magnetic, anti-static, and anti-interference. In terms of food safety, RFID electronic tags are also used to monitor the entire food of the umbrella department to ensure a healthy and safe diet.
In 2009, Tianjin Port in China used RFID technology to transform the container land transportation process, improve the container operation link, and realize the automatic collection of container data. The time for vehicles to pass through the bayonet will be shortened by more than 50%; Shanghai Port uses RFID technology to build and develop global logistics The online monitoring and service platform records real-time information on containers, cargoes, and flows in container transportation, as well as safety information throughout the transportation process, to improve the transparency, efficiency, and safety of container logistics, and improve the overall level of container logistics.
The ticket for the 2010 Shanghai World Expo is a mobile phone ticket using RFID technology in the umbrella department. Each ticket records information about the visitor and can exchange information with sensors throughout the park wirelessly, so that managers can quickly and clearly Corresponding situation in the indone zone, and make timely adjustments. Visitors only need to replace their mobile phone card with an RFID-SIM card when entering the park, and place the mobile phone in the induction area (reader) of the mobile ticket to automatically complete the ticket verification process: the mobile ticket can not only purchase goods in the Expo Park, but also You can use your mobile ticket to take the subway at various subway stations in Shanghai.
The RFID-SIM card reader is installed in the Expo Park and each subway station, so that the payment and ticket verification process can be conveniently and quickly completed.
The "2010 China Mobile Payment Industry Forum" was held in Beijing, and mobile phone payment pilots in major cities have been fully launched, and mobile payment applications are gradually entering the public life. Mobile phone payment is only a basic application of RFID, and RFTD will support the entire Internet of Things industry from unreal concepts to practical applications.
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The solution has become the main form of IoT applications in China, and has been widely used in smart buildings, street lamp monitoring, animal traceability, mobile wallets, and environmental testing.
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