[Home Theater Network HDAV.com.cn] Why do recording studios and control rooms need to be treated acoustically? What should I do?
The studio has very strict requirements on the room. A minimum of two rooms is required to complete a truly professional recording task. One is the recording studio and the other is the control room. One is used for recording (studio), for singers, and the other for recording and post-mixing (control room). When recording, the singer wears headphones and the sound engineer uses speakers. The biggest use of the two rooms is to avoid the sound of the speakers in the control room affecting the pickup of the microphone. In order to prevent your voice from spreading to affect your neighbors, and to prevent the outside world from coming in to affect your work, the house must be completely enclosed to achieve a certain sound insulation effect.
We carry out music production and recording work, the requirements for monitoring are relatively high, otherwise it will affect our judgment of the sound and the quality of the work. But our room has a major impact on the quality of our monitoring, do you know?
The first is the noise problem that everyone pays attention to. A good studio should have very little ambient noise and equipment noise. The second is the standing wave problem that everyone pays attention to. This problem is especially obvious in the low frequency area. When you listen to music, you will find that the bass sound is very strange. Some sounds are very loud and fierce, and some sounds are very weak. . This is not necessarily a question of bass sound, this is the illusion caused by standing waves. The standing wave problem is very prominent in the personal studio and needs to be paid special attention. Finally, echo and reverb problems. The multiple reflections of the sound in the walls of the room form echoes and reverberations. The echo problem in the small room is very prominent, which is what we often say "squeaky jar sound effect." There are two ways to solve this problem: 1 to increase the diffuse reflection, which can dilute the echo, and secondly to absorb the sound, try to absorb the sound that reaches the wall so that it is no longer reflected back.
Second, the studio acoustic decoration design implementation standards and related requirements
The acoustic environment of the studio is required to meet the relevant national regulations. The sound effects, reverberation coefficient, background noise and sound uniformity in the studio are comprehensively designed to achieve a professional multi-functional digital recording studio. In the overall design, it is necessary to consider various professional requirements in the production of the program, but also to consider the comfortable visual effects, to provide the best conditions for the production of music records as much as possible, in addition to taking into account the effective use area of â€‹â€‹the production site, reasonable The process and the safety of the work ensure the smooth progress of the production of the program, so that the participating audience can enjoy the spirit in a safe and pleasant environment.
The reference standards are as follows:
Recording production equipment reference related specifications, standards
The standard for soundproof doors and windows in the studio is adopted by the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television Standard GYJ26-86.
The noise control standard of the studio is adopted by the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television Standard GYJ42-89 "Permitted Noise Standard for Technical Rooms of Radio and Television Centers";
The studio reverberation time standard adopts the â€œReverberation Time and Frequency Characteristics of the Studioâ€ recommended by the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television, GYJ26-86;
The fireproof standard of the studio is adopted by the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television Standard GYJ33-88 "Fire and TV Engineering Building Design Fire Protection Standard";
The air conditioning and lighting standards of the studio are based on the â€œGuangdong Radio and Television Department Standard GYJ43-90 â€œEnvironmental Requirements for Temperature and Technology of Radio and Television Centers (Temperature, Humidity, Illumination)â€;
The electrical installation standard of the recording studio adopts the "Standard for Construction and Acceptance of Electrical Installation Engineering" GBJ232-82;
The recording and wiring standard of the recording studio adopts the construction and specification of the integrated wiring engineering of buildings and buildings (GB50312-2000);
Building Design Fire Protection Code (Revised) GBJ16-87;
Professional studio design process;
Third, (recording studio and audio-visual room two parts) for all the new design deployment
1, recording studio size:
The first part: the recording controller is 4.6 meters long, 6 meters wide, and 3.9 meters high (strong sound absorption standing wave treatment)
The second part: recording awning shed is 5.6 meters long X section 6 meters X height 3.9 meters (strong sound insulation standing wave processing)
The acoustic processing of the recording studio and the audio-visual room should pay attention to the steps to be solved. It is necessary to put the difficulty in the front and easy to put it in the back. Noise and standing wave problems can be solved by changing the structure of the house, so it is the first place, and the noise problem is the first. You will be disturbed by outside noise and your neighbors will be disturbed by your noise. Therefore, be sure to do sound insulation. The sound is like a water that is drilled when it is seamed. Therefore, you should try to close the room and isolate everything from the outside world. Especially the windows, so we use the 75-reinforced light steel keel frame to support the window of the control room, and the reinforced 50-type ultra-fine glass wool is filled with the sound-insulated wall gypsum board and the nail wall is sealed as much as possible. Air leaks.
In the studio, standing waves are the most obvious factor affecting listening. If the recording room is larger, the standing wave can be controlled more effectively. Because the room selected by your school is not very large, to solve the problem of standing wave, you can remove the parallel wall on both sides of the room, or install a fake wall and convert it into A room with at least 12 degrees of opposite walls on one of the opposite walls helps control the standing wave. If there is really no way to avoid parallel walls, then sound-absorbing materials are used to control these reflected sound waves. Commonly used sound absorbing tools include blankets, cabinets that absorb bass, etc., and also consider the problem of sound absorption coefficient.
There are other miscellaneous effects that affect the recording. We can use some means of absorbing medium, high, low and diffuse reflections to break up the sound. Slowly, there is no particularly strong reflection signal. Absorbing high frequencies, reducing low frequency reflection time and crosstalk, and isolating low frequency interference are all important points to be aware of when decorating a studio.
(1) Room partition
Then divide the room area: build a wall inside the room, divide the room into two, one for recording and one for control and monitoring. The control room and the studio are two separate rooms, so there are three layers of glass windows between the rooms so that the sound engineer can see the studio in the control room and can communicate with the singer at any time.
(2) Construction process at the top of the recording studio
The construction of the top of the studio is mainly treated with sound insulation and acoustic effects. The thickness between the ordinary floors and the sound insulation effect can not meet the needs of recording. The large core board must be re-suspended on the top of the original, and then the acoustic treatment of the recording is performed on the basis of the original, so as to make up for the lack of sound insulation of the original top, and at the same time, the acoustic treatment of the top can satisfy the acoustic standard and the post-recording effect. .
Part of the studio: First, the ceiling is made of 50 thick light steel keel, filled with sound-absorbing cotton, and the outer cover of the steel mesh. The ceiling of the recording studio is made of flame-retardant sound-permeable fabric and mineral wool acoustic board. The wall part is made of light steel keel. The sound-absorbing cotton is filled, and the surface mineral wool sound-absorbing board is arranged in combination with the flame-retardant sound-permeable fabric, and then styling is carried out by using the shape sound-absorbing top polyester fiber board.
as the picture shows:
(3) Wall wall surface construction treatment process
The construction quality of the wall and the wall occupies a very important position in the studio decoration. The quality and the difference of the quality will fundamentally affect the acoustic effect of the studio and the post-recording effect. Wall and wall construction treatment processes mainly include sound insulation, re-insulation, noise reduction, sound insulation and acoustic treatment of walls and walls; general conventional building thickness and sound insulation effects are difficult to meet the needs of the studio decoration, so sound insulation The wall is supported by a 75-reinforced light steel keel frame, reinforced with 50 super-fine glass wool, and covered with a sound-insulated wall gypsum board. The masonry prevents noise from being drilled to affect future recording work. The top sound insulation treatment uses the main keel of the sound insulation ceiling 38, the sound absorbing ceiling 50 pairs of keels, and the sound insulation 50 super fine sound insulation cotton filling, in order to ensure that the recording studio can achieve acoustic effects in the decoration, so that the latter can be well guaranteed. Recording quality.
as the picture shows:
Control room wall surface construction process diagram
Since the space of the control room is narrow, the standing sound emitted by the monitor speaker will reach the front and the standing wave will appear. Therefore, the diffuser is installed on the wall directly opposite the control room and the observation window, so that the sound transmitted from the speaker diffuses and attenuates the standing wave. . As shown
(4) Floor floor construction treatment process
The treatment of floor coverings is very demanding in today's recording studios, especially digital recording studios. The main function of the floor in the studio is sound insulation, suspension, moisture and anti-static. According to the existing conditions of the site and other factors, the stone floor is paved on the basis of the original ground. A quiet, flame-retardant carpet is placed in the area where the recording room is frequently active, reducing the noise caused by walking.
(5) Door body construction treatment process
The sound insulation door is the passage into and out of the recording studio. It is also one of the most important processing procedures in the studio decoration process. The processing technology of the sound insulation door will also directly affect the recording effect. Generally speaking, the soundproof door is generally two, so the door of the recording studio needs to be processed by three thick trapezoidal processing in the process of processing, that is, three-layer sound insulation and trapezoidal "stitching". Thereby ensuring the sound insulation effect of the recording studio, the control room and the outside world.
The control room door (original door) is not recommended for replacement, because this door belongs to the steel security door with basic sound insulation function. After observation, the sealing performance is good, and the door sound absorbing material can be attracted during the decoration process.
(6) Observation window construction treatment process
The observation window is one of the most important processing steps in the decoration process of the recording studio. It is necessary to make an effective observation space and also to achieve sound insulation. We use a three-layer and bevel process, while the edge is treated with solid wood. Sound insulation is guaranteed while ensuring aesthetics.
The observation window construction process is as follows:
(7) Recording room J corner construction processing technology
Sometimes due to the limited space and the reasonable allocation of room size and the user's requirements for the system, the recording studio and the control room are segmented, thus forming a segmented irregular J angle. In order to further ensure the acoustic standard and post-recording effects, the segmented irregular J-angle must be acoustically processed to achieve the best results in the entire recording environment. After completing the soundproof wall, you can place four triangles for the recording in the four corners of the recording room to attract the sponge and a part of the square to attract the sponge on the wall of the studio. One is to effectively absorb the low frequency standing wave, and the other is It can effectively absorb sound waves in the 1000-4000HZ band. As shown below:
(9) Air conditioning construction treatment process
1) The installation, construction process and reasonable treatment of the air conditioner directly affect the later recording effect in the studio decoration. Air conditioning installation and construction process requirements, ventilation and import and export for single channel treatment, while avoiding ordinary household or industrial hanging and vertical air conditioning, because the traditional air conditioning channel is straight and docked with the outside machine, so the outside world The noise will go directly into the studio. Therefore, most of the air conditioners in the studio use ceiling-mounted air conditioners; wraparound processing is required in construction, so that external noise can be gradually attenuated in the surrounding passages without entering the studio. Due to the constraints of the existing conditions, even if the wall-mounted air conditioner is installed, try to avoid opening during the recording process. You can choose to turn on the cooling before recording or turn it on during the rest, because there is still some noise in the opening of the air conditioner. Turn off the air conditioner to make the recording process cleaner and the sound quality guaranteed.
Note: If wall-mounted air conditioner is selected, the air-conditioning connecting pipe and other components should be installed before the decoration construction, so as to avoid the inconvenience caused by the installation after the decoration.
2) Heat sink heat treatment, the troublesome in the studio is the heat sink, because it takes into account the heating in winter, but at the same time it has a certain impact on the acoustic environment, because the air conditioner is pre-installed in the recording room, it is recommended to install refrigeration / Heating the dual-purpose air conditioner, so that the heat sink can be removed without affecting the acoustic environment. If you can't remove the heat sink, you can also use the external wall decoration method to wrap the radiator around, then throw a heat sink on the side and install a heat-dissipating window on the heat sink, which keeps the heating in winter. At the same time, it will not have much impact on the acoustic environment.
(9) Lighting treatment process
The lighting treatment process must avoid the use of tube lamps and traditional lamps, because the traditional tube lamps or lamps have current sounds in the process of use, which will cause noise, which will affect the recording quality and monitoring. Therefore, we use spotlights for direct lighting.
(10) Circuit construction process
In the process of using the recording equipment, the circuit must be stable and uninterrupted, so the circuit, lighting, air conditioning and recording equipment single-circuit circuit scheme is adopted. This ensures that the studio equipment is not affected by other circuits and causes the equipment to burn out.
(11) Other instructions
Regarding the choice of color, the choice of color is beneficial to adjust the mood of the person, and the studio must carry out a color matching and reasonable color matching.
With regard to the beading strip, all the beading and line edges are treated with solid wood during the decoration of the recording studio to ensure the acoustic effect and the quality of the later recording.
Regarding fire protection, the original two smoke alarms on the roof of the room, due to the construction of the ceiling, the smoke alarm should be moved down to prevent the ceiling from being ignored, the original function is lost, and in the recording studio (recording room) Prepare fire-fighting equipment (dry powder fire extinguisher) with the control room and keep the fire extinguisher from damaging the equipment during use.
The staff should try to avoid smoking in the studio, because these decoration materials are environmentally friendly materials. If they smoke in the shed, the smoke will be easily turbid to the attraction material, which is not good for health in the shed for a long time.
Recording studio & control room 0.35Â±0.05, intermediate frequency 500âˆ½1000Hz, frequency characteristics are basically straight NC-25, sound insulation LAâ‰¤30-50dBAÂ±2.0
In order to meet the above-mentioned indoor noise floor requirements, the conventional practice of the enclosure wall of the professional acoustic room is to use 240 thick standard clay bricks, and the inner layer is made of light steel keel gypsum board or high-pressure fiber cement board. The sound wall body constitutes a heavy wall and a light wall composite wall to meet the requirements of wall sound insulation.
C. Acoustic design goals for the above functional rooms
Ã˜ Reverberation time and frequency characteristics of each room should meet the requirements of design acoustic indicators;
Ã˜ There are no sound defects such as echo, vibrating echo and sound staining in each room;
Ã˜ The indoor sound field has good characteristics and the sound field is evenly distributed to meet the requirements of on-site recording and post-production;
Ã˜ The room is quiet enough, no noise interference from the external environment of the building and the air conditioning and ventilation system;
Ã˜ The selection and construction of acoustic materials are designed and configured with good visual effects of decoration, and they have better technical and economical performance while meeting acoustic requirements;
Ã˜ The selection and design of acoustic materials and structures should meet the relevant fire protection requirements.
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